Research Group “Applied Molecular Biology”
The focus of the ERC Advanced Investigator Grant research group of Prof. Dr. Werner E. G. Müller, which includes the groups of Prof. Dr. Xiaohong Wang, Prof. Dr. Dr. Heinz C. Schröder and Dr. Matthias Wiens, concerns the following Topics:
Inorganic Functional Biopolymers and Molecular Biomineralization
Starting with the evolutionary oldest animals, the siliceous sponges, up to humans, the principle molecular processes underlying biomineral formation are studied. The group succeeeded to show that both the formation of the biosilica skeleton of the siliceous sponges and the deposition of the inorganic bone material (hydroxyapatite, HA) proceeds and is regulated via enzymatic mechanisms. The biocatalytic and structure-guiding functions of the silicateins (biosilica synthesis in the siliceous sponges) as well as the carbonic anhydrase-mediated formation of calcium carbonate (skeleton of the calcareous sponges) have been elucidated. These discoveries allowed the development of novel applications from biomedicine (implants) to nanotechnology/microoptics (light transmission). Moreover, we were the first to show that the mineralisation of human bone is initiated by a carbonic anhydrase (CA IX) mediated formation of „bioseeds“, consisting of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC), that are subsequently transformed by carbonate-phosphate-exchange into amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP, HA precursor). Thereby the phosphate is provided, again enzymatically, by hydrolysis of inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) via the alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Recently we could show that the long-chain polyP molecules, linked by numerous energy-rich phosphodiester bonds, serve as an extracellular energy storage/signalling molecule – a fundamentally new principle in cellular energy metabolism. These research activities are also in the focus of the Chinese-German Center for “Bio-inspired Materials”, coordinated by Prof. Müller together with Prof. Wang.
Bio-inspired Materials for Regenerative Medicine
Building upon on the results of basic research, our group is developing novel strategies for the fabrication of materials for medical applications, in particular implants (bone, cartilage, blood vessels, and cornea), and for 3D-printing / bioplotting. The main focus are morphogeneticaly active inorganic polymers such as energy-rich amorphous calcium-polyphosphate particles, amorphous biosilica, amorphous calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate (ACC and ACP) as well as the combination of these building blocks with bioinert materials. Techniques for the adjustable hardening of these materials are developed. This research topic, funded in the frame of two ERC Proof-of-Concept projects (“Si-Bone-PoC” and ERC Horizon 2020 “MorphoVES-PoC”) as well as of the EU FP7 project “BioScaffolds” (coordinator: W.E.G. Müller) also comprises the fabrication of nanofiber networks by electrospinning. First regeneratively active implant materials have already been tested in animal experiments and shall be introduced into clinical application. For example, we recently succeeded to develop a novel bioinspired hydrogel, composed of morphogenetically active inorganic polyP, along with two likewise biocompatible and negatively charged but bioinert natural polymers. This material can be hardened with calcium ions to yield regenerative scaffold materials that can be used for bone or cartilage and even artificial blood vessels. These biocompatible and biodegradable materials allow a fast and complete replacement by the body’s own tissue such as bone, without the need of (stem) cells or cytokine/growth factor supplementation.
Marine Biomolecules for Biotechnology and Biomedicine
Marine sponges are an inexhaustible source of medical or biotechnological interesting proteins and bioactive compounds. As part of the EU FP7 Large - Scale Integrating Project BlueGenics, methods for the sustainable production of these compounds are being developed, particularly for therapy/prophylaxis of bone diseases (osteoporosis). Examples for compounds investigated are isoquercitrin and Ca-polyP (synergistic action on human bone formation), quinolinic acid (activator of carbonic anhydrase involved in bone formation) and retinol/Ca-polyP nanospheres (wound healing). The further focus is on molecular biology and phylogenetic analysis of the genome of aquatic invertebrates (in particular sponges) to elucidate the origin of Metazoa about 700 million years ago. Functional studies concern molecules of innate immunity, apoptosis, cell communication and morphogenesis. The analysis contributes to the understanding of basic biochemical and pathobiochemical mechanisms in humans.
The Research Group with its Center of Excellence “BIOTECmarin - Biomaterials from the Sea” has been selected as one of the winners in the frame of the national initiative “Germany - Land of Ideas”. The Group is intensively involved in the training of graduate and postgraduate students and has coordinated several EU projects in this field such as the Marie Curie Research Training Networks “BioCapital” (coordinator: WEG Müller) and “BIOMINTEC” (coordinator: HC Schröder), as well as the EU FP7 Industry - Academia Partnerships and Pathways project “CoreShell” (coordinator: XH Wang ) and the EU FP7 Marie Curie staff exchange project “MarBioTec” (“European - Chinese Research Staff Exchange Cluster on Marine Biotechnology”; coordinator: WEG Müller) .