Vertigo is classified as either a disturbance in spatial orientation or as a false perception of body movement or the environment. Important for the diagnosis is a detailed medical history as well as a neuro-opthalmological and neuro-otological examinations.
The various vertigo symptoms can be divided into the following categories: peripheral-vestibular (affects the vestibular nerve), central-vestibular (origins in the brainstem or cerebellum), and psychogenic forms. The most common forms of vertigo are the benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), phobic dizziness, central-vestibular vertigo, migraines, vestibular neuronitis, and Ménière's disease.
Bodily systems as well as standing and posture regulation can be carefully examined and topographically categorized. Additional methods can include psychophysical determination of the subjective visual vertical, tilting of the visual vertical, Fundus photography of the eye, and electronystagmography to document horizontal and vertical eye movement.
Treatment for vertigo is comprised of medicinal, physical, operative, and psychotherapeutic measures. The majority of vertigo symptoms require a specific therapy, therefore the correct diagnosis is imperative.