The BATTLE registry

The Bacteria-Associated Thrombosis/Thrombophlebitis and Lemierre syndrome (BATTLE) registry is an ambispective, disease-specific, non-population based, multicentre clinical registry of global reach and multidisciplinary scope, specifically designed to address the limitations of current evidence and to provide patients and physicians with clinically viable information to guide management and improve the outcomes of those affected by Lemierre syndrome and other forms of bacterial thrombophlebitis.

The electronic Clinical Research Form of the BATTLE registry will be accessible directly from this page from March, 2021. For information and updates, please contact Luca Valerio ( luca.valerio@unimedizin-mainz.de).

What is Lemierre syndrome?

Lemierre syndrome is a rare but potentially fatal condition characterized by septic thrombophlebitis of the head and neck district, preferentially affecting adolescents and young adults and manifesting as a complication of a local bacterial infection – typically, a pharyngotonsillitis or an abscess. It is historically associated with the Gram-negative anaerobic rod Fusobacterium necrophorum and with thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein. However, its definition has never been firmly established, and its spectrum within the continuum of bacteria-associated thrombophlebitis may be larger than what presumed so far. Recent evidence suggests that its prognosis remains serious even one hundred years after its first description, with considerable rates of in-hospital complications, death, and long-term sequelae. There are no specific guidelines on its management other than usual antibiotic stewardship, with ongoing debate on the potential role of therapeutic-dose anticoagulation.

Information on Lemierre syndrome

Valerio L., Corsi G., Sebastian T., Barco S. Lemierre syndrome: Current evidence and rationale of the Bacteria-Associated Thrombosis, Thrombophlebitis and LEmierre syndrome (BATTLE) registry. Thrombosis Research 196: 494-9 (2020). doi: doi.org/10.1016/j.thromres.2020.10.002.

Valerio L., Zane F., Sacco C. , Granziera S. , Nicoletti T., Russo M., Corsi G., Holm K., Hotz M.-A., Righini C., Karkos P.D., Mahmoudpour S.H., Kucher N., Verhamme P., Di Nisio M., Centor R.M., Konstantinides S.V., Pecci A., Barco S., Patients with Lemierre syndrome have a high risk of new thromboembolic complications, clinical sequelae, and death: an analysis of 712 cases. Journal of Internal Medicine (2020). doi: doi.org/10.1111/joim.13114.

Information on septic thrombophlebitis

Valerio L., Riva N. Head, Neck, and Abdominopelvic Septic Thrombophlebitis: Current Evidence and Challenges in Diagnosis and Treatment. Hamostaseologie 2020; 40(3): 301-10. doi: doi.org/10.1055/a-1177-5127.


Luca Valerio, MD

Postdoctoral Fellow

+49(0)6131 17-7490



Stefano Barco, MD, PhD, FESC

Research group leader

Clinic of Angiology, University of Zurich

+41 44 255 33 44