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Professorship for Experimental Hemostasis and Gnotobiotics

Prof. Dr. Christoph Reinhardt

Mammals are colonized by a vast variety of microbes outnumbering host cells by 10 fold. These constant microbial stimuli influence host physiology and contribute to cardiovascular and metabolic disease states. Our group established germ-free mouse colonies to study the influence of microbiota on the host’s coagulation system and on thrombus formation. Our research focusses on coagulation factor signaling in the small intestine, but also on the identification of systemic effects that enhance thrombus formation. To explore the role of the enteric microbiota in thrombosis we take advantage of intravital microscopy to visualize thrombus formation and adhesion of blood cells to the injured carotid artery, the vena cava and mesenteric vessels. We also apply germ-free mouse models to identify microbiota-induced morphogenic signaling pathways that trigger remodeling and renewal of the intestinal mucosa.

Research Interests

  • Impact of gut microbes on thrombus formation by gnotobiotic mouse technology (BMBF)
  • Role of TLR2 in experimental thrombus formation 
  • Microbiota-induced mucosal remodeling in the small intestine (DFG, IFF)
  • Transciptom-based analysis of microbiota-dependent effects on endothelial cells (BIF)

Partners of Collaboration

Partners at the University Clinical Center Mainz

  • Prof. Wolfram Ruf (CTH)
  • Prof. Dr. med. Philip Wenzel (CTH)
  • PD Dr. Kerstin Jurk (CTH)
  • Prof. Katrin Schäfer (Cardiology I)
  • PD Dr. Kristina Endres (Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy)
  • Prof. Susanne Gerber und Dr. Hristo Todorov (Institute of Human Genetics)
  • Prof. Huige Li (Institut of Pharmacology)
  • Prof. Roland Stauber ( Department of Otorhinolaryngology)
  • Dr. Natalia Soshnikova (Institute of Molecular Biology)
  • Dr. Federico Marini (IMBEI)

National Partners

  • PD Dr. Felix Sommer (Institute of Clinical Molecular Biology, Christian-Albrechts-University Kiel)
  • PD Dr. med. Jens Kittner (Diakonie Klinikum Neunkirchen)
  • Prof. Raffael Kalisch (Leibniz Institute for Resilience Research, Mainz)
  • Prof. Marianne Müller (Leibniz Institute for Resilience Research, Mainz)

International Partners

  • Prof. Wolfram Ruf (Department of Immunology and Microbial Science, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, USA)
  • Prof. Markus Bosmann (School of Medicine, Boston University)

Research Funding

  • GFK Fellowship
  • Wilhelm Sander-Stiftung
  • Land Rheinland-Pfalz / Europäischer Fonds für Regionale Entwicklung (EFRE)
  • ReALity Innovation Fund (Forschungsinitiative des Landes Rheinland-Pfalz)
  • BMBF 'Clusters4Future' (curATime; P3 microbAIome)
  • Young DZHK – Promotion of Women Scientists (Klytaimnistra Kiouptsi)

Biography - Christoph Reinhardt

Since 2022 - Professorship for Experimentel Hemostasis and Gnotobiotics, CTH, University Medical Center, Johannes Gutenberg-University, Mainz

Research Career:
2016 - 2022 - Junior Professor for Experimentel Hemostasis and Gnotobiotics, CTH, University Medical Center, Johannes Gutenberg-University, MainzSince 2020 - Gutenberg Forschungskolleg Fellow, Johannes Gutenberg-University, Mainz
2011 - 2016 - Junior Group Leader 'Translational Research in Thrombosis and Hemostasis', CTH, University Medical Center, Johannes Gutenberg-University, Mainz
2010 - 2011 - EU-Project Leader, Julius-Maximilians-University, Institute for Clinical Biochemistry and Pathbiochemistry, Würzburg
2007 - 2010 -  EU Marie Curie Postdoctoral Researcher, University of Gothenburg, Wallenberg Laboratory for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Research, Gothenburg, Sweden

Professional Education:
2007 - PhD, Ludwig-Maximilians-University (LMU), Munich
2003 - Diplom in Biochemistry, University Zürich, Switzerland

ORCID Researcher ID:

Team - Juniorgroup Translational Research in T&H

Jun. Prof. Dr. Christoph Reinhardt
Jun. Prof. Dr. Christoph Reinhardt

Juniorgroup leader, GFK Fellow, Scientist in the DZHK

06131 17-8280

06131 17-6238
Weitere Informationen

 Olga Dremova
Olga Dremova

PhD Student


 Anja Eckelt
Anja Eckelt

PhD student

06131 17-8284

 Zhenling Gao
Zhenling Gao

PhD Student

06131 17-8284

 Cornelia Karwot
Cornelia Karwot

Technical Assistant

06131 17-8284

 My Phung Khuu
My Phung Khuu

PhD Student

06131 17-8284

PhD Klytaimnistra Kiouptsi
PhD Klytaimnistra Kiouptsi


06131 17-8354

PhD Amrit Mann
PhD Amrit Mann

Post Doc

06131 17-8364

 Maximilian Mimmler
Maximilian Mimmler

PhD Student

06131 17-8284

 Nadja Paeslack
Nadja Paeslack

PhD Student

06131 17-8284

Former team members

Dr. Frano Hernán Malinarich González
Franziska Bayer
Dr. rer. nat. Henning Formes
Nives Hörmann
Dr rer. nat. Inês Brandão
Dr. med. vet. Sven Jäckel
Dr. rer. biol. hum. Avinash Khandagale
Dr. rer. nat. Maren Lillich
Dr. rer. nat. Cecilia Maria Perera
Dr. med. vet. Eivor Wilms
Dr. rer. nat. Bettina Kollar
Dr. med. vet. Alexandra Grill
Dr. rer. nat. Stefanie Ascher
Dr. Giulia Pontarollo


We are looking forward to applications from highly motivated students for Master-Thesis Projects.   Email.

Original articles

  • Krenzlin V, Schöche J, Walachowski S, Reinhardt C, Radsak MP, Bosmann M. Immunomodulation of neutrophil granulocyte functions by bacterial polyphosphates. Eur J Immunol. 2023 Mar 23:e2250339
  • Moos S, Regen T, Wanke F, Tian Y, Arendholz L, Hauptmann J, Heinen AP, Bleul L, Bier K, El Malki K, Reinhardt C, Prinz I, Diefenbach A, Wolz C, Schittek B, Waisman A, Kurschus FC. IL-17 signaling in keratinocytes orchestrates the defense against Staphylococcus aureus skin infection. J Invest Dermatol. 2023 Feb 1:S0022-202X(23)00070-2
  • Roewe J, Walachowski S, Sharma A, Berthiaume KA, Reinhardt C, Bosmann M. Bacterial polyphosphates induce CXCL4 and synergize with complement anaphylatoxin C5a in lung injury. Front Immunol. 2022 Nov 3;13:980733
  • Hasselwander S, Xia N, Mimmler M, Ascher S, Knopp T, Reifenberg G, Karbach S, Ruf W, Reinhardt C, Li H. B lymphocyte-deficiency in mice promotes venous thrombosis. Heliyon. 2022 Nov 17;8(11):e11740
  • Khamis A, Gül D, Wandrey M, Lu Q, Knauer SK, Reinhardt C, Strieth S, Hagemann J, Stauber RH. The Vitamin D Receptor-BIM Axis Overcomes Cisplatin Resistance in Head and Neck Cancer. Cancers (Basel). 2022 Oct 19;14(20):5131.
  • Krenzlin V, Roewe J, Strueve M, Martínez-Negro M, Sharma A, Reinhardt C, Morsbach S, Bosmann M. Bacterial-Type Long-Chain Polyphosphates Bind Human Proteins in the Phosphatidylinositol Signaling Pathway. Thromb Haemost. 2022 Jul 30. doi: 10.1055/s-0042-1751280. Epub ahead of print.
  • Eckelt A, Wichmann F, Bayer F, Eckelt J, Groß J, Opatz T, Jurk K, Reinhardt C, Kiouptsi K. Ethyl Hydroxyethyl Cellulose-A Biocompatible Polymer Carrier in Blood. Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Jun 9;23(12):6432
  • Chaudhary N, Jayaraman A, Reinhardt C, Campbell JD, Bosmann M. A single-cell lung atlas of complement genes identifies the mesothelium and epithelium as prominent sources of extrahepatic complement proteins. Mucosal Immunol. 2022 May;15(5):927-939.
  • Sharma A, Noon JB, Kontodimas K, Garo LP, Platten J, Quinton LJ, Urban JF Jr, Reinhardt C, Bosmann M. IL-27 Enhances γδ T Cell-Mediated Innate Resistance to Primary Hookworm Infection in the Lungs. J Immunol. 2022 Apr 15;208(8):2008-2018.
  • Stamm P, Kalinovic S, Oelze M, Steven S, Czarnowski A, Kvandova M, Bayer F, Reinhardt C, Münzel T, Daiber A. Mechanistic Insights into Inorganic Nitrite-Mediated Vasodilation of Isolated Aortic Rings under Oxidative/Hypertensive Conditions and S-Nitros(yl)ation of Proteins in Germ-Free Mice. Biomedicines. 2022 Mar 21;10(3):730
  • Siemer S, Bauer TA, Scholz P, Breder C, Fenaroli F, Harms G, Dietrich D, Dietrich J, Rosenauer C, Barz M, Becker S, Strieth S, Reinhardt C, Fauth T, Hagemann J, Stauber RH. Targeting Cancer Chemotherapy Resistance by Precision Medicine-Driven Nanoparticle-Formulated Cisplatin. ACS Nano. 2021 Nov. doi: 10.1021/acsnano.1c08632.
  • Formes H, Bernardes JP, Mann A, Bayer F, Pontarollo G, Kiouptsi K, Schäfer K, Attig S, Nikolova T, Hofmann TG, Schattenberg JM, Todorov H, Gerber S, Rosenstiel P, Bopp T, Sommer F, Reinhardt C. The gut microbiota instructs the hepatic endothelial cell transcriptome. iScience. 2021 Sep 10;24(10):103092.
  • Bayer F, Ascher S, Kiouptsi K, Kittner JM, Stauber RH, Reinhardt C. Colonization with Altered Schaedler Flora Impacts Leukocyte Adhesion in Mesenteric Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury. Microorganisms. 2021 Jul 27;9(8):1601.
  • Guilherme MDS, Nguyen VTT,  Reinhardt C, Endres K. Impact of Gut Microbiome Manipulation in 5xFAD Mice on Alzheimer's Disease-Like Pathology. Microorganisms. 2021 Apr 13;9(4):815.
  • Valerio L, Corsi G, Granziera S, Holm K, Hotz MA, Jankowski M, Konstantinides SV, Kucher N, Nicoletti T, Reinhardt C, Righini C, Sacco C, Trinchero A, Zane F, Pecci A, Barco S. Sex differences in Lemierre syndrome: Individual patient-level analysis. Thromb Res. 2021 Mar 6;202:36-39.
  • Regen T, Isaac S, Amorim A, Núñez NG, Hauptmann J, Shanmugavadivu A, Klein M, Sankowski R, Mufazalov IA, Yogev N, Huppert J, Wanke F, Witting M, Grill A, Gálvez EJC, Nikolaev A, Blanfeld M, Prinz I, Schmitt-Kopplin P, Strowig T, Reinhardt C, Prinz M, Bopp T, Becher B, Ubeda C, Waisman A. IL-17 controls central nervous system autoimmunity through the intestinal microbiome. Sci Immunol. 2021 Feb 5;6(5 6):eaaz6563.
  • Ballesteros I, Rubio-Ponce A, Genua M, Lusito E, Kwok I, Fernandez-Calvo G, Khoyratty TE, van Grinsven E, Gonzalez-Hernandez S, Nicolas-Avila JA, Vicanolo T, Maccataio A, Benguria A, Li JL, Adrover JM, Aroca-Crevillen A, Quintana JA, Martin-Salamanca S, Mayo F, Ascher S, Barbiera G, Soehnlein O, Gunzer M, Ginhoux F, Sanchez-Cabo F, Nistal-Villan E, Schulz C, Dopazo A, Reinhardt C, Udalova IA, Ng LG, Ostuni R, Hidalgo A. Co-option of Neutrophil Fates by Tissue Environments. Cell. 2020 Nov 25;183(5):1282-1297.e18.
  • Kiouptsi K, Jäckel S, Wilms E, Pontarollo G, Winterstein J, Karwot C, Groß K, Jurk K, Reinhardt C. The Commensal Microbiota Enhances ADP-Triggered Integrin α IIb β 3 Activation and von Willebrand Factor-Mediated Platelet Deposition to Type I Collagen. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Sep 28;21(19):7171.
  • Roewe J, Stavrides G, Strueve M, Sharma A, Marini F, Mann A, Smith SA, Kaya Z, Strobl B, Mueller M, Reinhardt C, Morrissey JH, Bosmann M. 2020. Bacterial polyphosphates interfere with the innate host defense to infection. Nat Commun. 2020 Aug 12;11(1):4035.
  • Ascher S, Wilms E, Pontarollo G, Formes H, Bayer F, Müller M, Malinarich F, Grill A, Bosmann M, Saffarzadeh M, Brandao I, Gross K, Kiouptsi K, Kittner JM, Lackner KJ, Jurk K, Reinhardt C. Gut Microbiota Restricts NETosis in Acute Mesenteric Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2020 Sep;40(9):2279-2292.
  • Kiouptsi K, Pontarollo G, Todorov H, Braun J, Jäckel S, Koeck T, Bayer F, Karwot C, Karpi A, Gerber S, Jansen Y, Wild P, Ruf W, Daiber A, Van Der Vorst E, Weber C, Döring Y, Reinhardt C. Germ-free housing conditions do not affect aortic root and aortic arch lesion size of late atherosclerotic low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice. Gut Microbes. 2020 Nov 1;11(6):1809-1823.
  • Schaupp L, Muth S, Rogell L, Kofoed-Branzk M, Melchior F, Lienenklaus S, Ganal-Vonarburg SC, Klein M, Guendel F, Hain T, Schütze K, Grundmann U, Schmitt V, Dorsch M, Spanier J, Larsen PK, Schwanz T, Jäckel S, Reinhardt C, Bopp T, Danckwardt S, Mahnke K, Heinz GA, Mashreghi MF, Durek P, Kalinke U, Kretz O, Huber TB, Weiss S, Wilhelm C, Macpherson AJ, Schild H, Diefenbach A, Probst HC. Microbiota-Induced Type I Interferons Instruct a Poised Basal State of Dendritic Cells. Cell. 2020;181(5):1080-1096 e1019.
  • Todorov H, Kollar B, Bayer F, Brandao I, Mann A, Mohr J, Pontarollo G, Formes H, Stauber R, Kittner JM, Endres K, Watzer B, Nockher WA, Sommer F, Gerber S, Reinhardt C. alpha-Linolenic Acid-Rich Diet Influences Microbiota Composition and Villus Morphology of the Mouse Small Intestine. Nutrients. 2020 Mar 11;12(3):732
  • Grill A, Kiouptsi K, Karwot C, Jurk K, Reinhardt C. Evaluation of blood collection methods and anticoagulants for platelet function analyses on C57BL/6J laboratory mice. Platelets. 2020 Nov 16;31(8):981-988.
  • Sonner JK, Keil M, Falk-Paulsen M, Mishra N, Rehman A, Kramer M, Deumelandt K, Röwe J, Sanghvi K, Wolf L, von Landenberg A, Wolff H, Bharti R, Oezen I, Lanz TV, Wanke F, Tang Y, Brandao I, Mohapatra SR, Epping L, Grill A, Röth R, Niesler B, Meuth SG, Opitz CA, Okun JG, Reinhardt C, Kurschus FC, Wick W, Bode HB, Rosenstiel P, Platten M. Dietary tryptophan links encephalogenicity of autoreactive T cells with gut microbial ecology. Nat Commun. 2019 Oct 25;10(1):4877.
  • Müller-Calleja N, Hollerbach A, Ritter S, Pedrosa DG, Strand D, Graf C, Reinhardt C, Strand S, Poncelet P, Griffin JH, Lackner KJ, Ruf W. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor primes monocytes for antiphospholipid antibody-induced thrombosis. Blood. 2019 Oct 3;134(14):1119-1131.
  • Kiouptsi K, Jäckel S, Pontarollo G, Grill A, Kuijpers MJE, Weber C, Sommer F, Nagy M, Neideck C, Jansen Y, Ascher S, Formes H, Karwot C, Bayer F, Subramaniam S, Molitor M, Wenzel P, Rosenstiel P, Todorov H, Gerber S, Walter U, Jurk K, Heemskerk JWM, van der Vorst EPC, Döring Y, Reinhardt C. The microbiota promotes atherothrombosis in late atherosclerotic Ldlr-deficinet mice. mBio. 2019 Oct 22;10(5):e02298-19.
  • Hewel C, Kaiser J, Wierczeiko A, Linke J, Reinhardt C, Endres K, Gerber S. Common miRNA Patterns of Alzheimer's Disease and Parkinson's Disease and Their Putative Impact on Commensal Gut Microbiota. Front Neurosci. 2019 Mar 5;13:113.
  • Kiouptsi K, Finger S, Garlapati VS, Knorr M, Brandt M, Walter U, Wenzel P, Reinhardt C. Hypoxia evokes increased PDI and PDIA6 expression in the infarcted myocardium of ex-germ-free and conventionally-raised mice. Biol Open. 2019 Jan 2;8(1):bio038851.
  • Khandagale A, Kittner JM, Mann A, Ascher S, Kollar B, Reinhardt C. Coagulation factor 9-deficient mice are protected against dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis. Biol Open. 2018 Jul 25;7(7):bio034140.
  • Westmeier D, Solouk-Saran D, Vallet C, Siemer S, Docter D, Götz H, Männ L, Hasenberg A, Hahlbrock A, Erler K, Reinhardt C, Schilling O, Becker S, Gunzer M, Hasenberg M, Knauer SK, Stauber RH. Nanoparticle decoration impacts airborne fungal pathobiology. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2018;115(27):7087-7092.
  • Lindskog Jonsson A, Caesar R, Akrami R, Reinhardt C, Fak Hallenius F, Boren J, Bäckhed F. Impact of Gut Microbiota and Diet on the Development of Atherosclerosis in Apoe(-/-) Mice. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2018 Oct;38(10):2318-2326.
  • Lagrange J, Kossmann S, Kiouptsi K, Wenzel P. Visualizing Leukocyte Rolling and Adhesion in Angiotensin II-Infused Mice: Techniques and Pitfalls. J Vis Exp. 2018 Jan 4;(131):56948
  • Kiouptsi K, Grill A, Mann A, Döhrmann M, Lillich M, Jäckel S, Malinarich F, Formes H, Manukyan D, Subramaniam S, Khandagale A, Karwot C, Thal SC, Bosmann M, Scharrer I, Jurk K, Reinhardt C. Mice deficient in the anti-haemophilic coagulation factor VIII show increased von Willebrand factor plasma levels. PLoS One. 2017 Aug 24;12(8):e0183590
  • Kiouptsi K, Gambaryan S, Walter E, Walter U, Jurk K, Reinhardt C (2017) Hypoxia impairs agonist-induced integrin αIIbβ3 activation and platelet aggregation. Sci Rep. 2017 Aug 8;7(1):7621.
  • Klier M, Gowert NS, Jäckel S, Reinhardt C, Elvers M. Phospholipase D1 is a regulator of platelet-mediated inflammation. Cell Signal. 2017 Oct;38:171-181.
  • Jäckel S, Kiouptsi K, Lillich M, Hendrikx T, Khandagale A, Kollar B, Hörmann N, Reiss C, Subramaniam S, Wilms E, Ebner K, von Brühl ML, Rausch P, Baines JF, Haberichter S, Lämmle B, Binder CJ, Jurk K, Ruggeri ZM, Massberg S, Walter U, Ruf W, Reinhardt C. Gut microbiota regulate hepatic von Willebrand Factor synthesis and arterial thrombus formation via Toll-like receptor-2. Blood. 2017 Jul 27;130(4):542-553.
  • Busch CJ, Hendrikx T, Weismann D, Jäckel S, Walenbergh SM, Rendeiro AF, Weisser J, Puhm F, Hladik A, Göderle L, Papac-Milicevic N, Haas G, Millischer V, Subramaniam S, Knapp S, Bennett KL, Bock C, Reinhardt C, Shiri-Sverdlov R, Binder CJ (2017) Malondialdehyde epitopes are sterile mediators of hepatic inflammation in hypercholesterolemic mice. Hepatology. 2017 Apr;65(4):1181-1195
  • Kossmann S, Lagrange J, Jäckel S, Jurk K, Ehlken M, Schönfelder T, Weihert Y, Knorr M, Brandt M, Xia N, Li H, Daiber A, Oelze M, Reinhardt C, Lackner K, Gruber A, Monia B, Karbach SH, Walter U, Ruggeri ZM, Renné T, Ruf W, Münzel T, Wenzel P. Platelet-localized FXI promotes a vascular coagulation-inflammatory circuit in arterial hypertension. Sci Transl Med. 2017 Feb 1;9(375):eaah4923.
  • Subramaniam S, Jurk K, Hobohm L, Jäckel S, Saffarzadeh M, Schwierczek K, Wenzel P, Langer F, Reinhardt C, Ruf W. Distinct contributions of complement factors to platelet activation and fibrin formation in venous thrombus development. Blood. 2017 Apr 20;129(16):2291-2302.
  • Karbach SH, Schönfelder T, Brandao I, Wilms E, Hörmann N, Jäckel S, Schüler R, Finger S, Knorr M, Lagrange J, Brandt M, Waisman A, Kossmann S, Schäfer K, Münzel T, Reinhardt C, Wenzel P. Gut Microbiota Promote Angiotensin II-Induced Arterial Hypertension and Vascular Dysfunction. J Am Heart Assoc. 2016 Aug 30;5(9):e003698.
  • Luther N, Shahneh F, Brähler M, Krebs F, Jäckel S, Subramaniam S, Stanger C, Schönfelder T, Kleis-Fischer B, Reinhardt C, Probst HC, Wenzel P, Schäfer K, Becker C. Innate Effector-Memory T-Cell Activation Regulates Post-Thrombotic Vein Wall Inflammation and Thrombus Resolution. Circ Res. 2016 Dec 9;119(12):1286-1295.
  • Manukyan D, Müller-Calleja N, Jäckel S, Luchmann K, Monnikes R, Kiouptsi K, Reinhardt C, Jurk K, Walter U, Lackner KJ (2016) Cofactor-independent human antiphospholipid antibodies induce venous thrombosis in mice. J Thromb Haemost. 2016 May;14(5):1011-20.
  • Stark K, Philippi V, Stockhausen S, Busse J, Antonelli A, Miller M, Schubert I, Hoseinpour P, Chandraratne S, von Brühl ML, Gaertner F, Lorenz M, Agresti A, Coletti R, Antoine DJ, Heermann R, Jung K, Reese S, Laitinen I, Schwaiger M, Walch A, Sperandio M, Nawroth PP, Reinhardt C, Jäckel S, Bianchi ME, Massberg S. Disulfide HMGB1 derived from platelets coordinates venous thrombosis in mice. Blood. 2016 Nov 17;128(20):2435-2449.
  • Bollmann F, Jäckel S, Schmidtke L, Schrick K, Reinhardt C, Jurk K, Wu Z, Xia N, Li H, Erkel G, Walter U, Kleinert H, Pautz A. Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Thrombotic Effects of the Fungal Metabolite Galiellalactone in Apolipoprotein E-Deficient Mice. PLoS One. 2015 Jun 15;10(6):e0130401.
  • Brandao I, Hörmann N, Jäckel S, Reinhardt C. TLR5 expression in the small intestine depends on the adaptors MyD88 and TRIF, but is independent of the enteric microbiota. Gut Microbes. 2015;6(3):202-6.
  • Hörmann N, Brandao I, Jäckel S, Ens N, Lillich M, Walter U, Reinhardt C. Gut microbial colonization orchestrates TLR2 expression, signaling and epithelial proliferation in the small intestinal mucosa. PLoS One. 2014 Nov 14;9(11):e113080.
  • Brandt M, Schönfelder T, Schwenk M, Becker C, Jäckel S, Reinhardt C, Stark K, Massberg S, Münzel T, von Brühl ML, Wenzel P. Deep vein thrombus formation induced by flow reduction in mice is determined by venous side branches. Clin Hemorheol Microcirc. 2014;56(2):145-52.
  • Tenzer S, Docter D, Kuharev J, Musyanovych A, Fetz V, Hecht R, Schlenk F, Fischer D, Kiouptsi K, Reinhardt C, Landfester K, Schild H, Maskos M, Knauer SK, Stauber RH. Rapid formation of plasma protein corona critically affects nanoparticle pathophysiology. Nat Nanotechnol. 2013 Oct;8(10):772-81.
  • Reinhardt C, Bergentall M, Greiner TU, Schaffner F, Ostergren-Lundén G, Petersen LC, Ruf W, Bäckhed F. Tissue factor and PAR1 promote microbiota-induced intestinal vascular remodelling. Nature. 2012 Mar 11;483(7391):627-31.
  • Caesar R, Reigstadt CS, Kling Bäckhed H, Reinhardt C, Ketonen M, Östergren-Lundén G, Cani PD, Bäckhed F. Gut-derived lipopolysaccharide augments adipose macrophage accumulation but is not essential for impaired glucose or insulin tolerance in mice. Gut. 2012 Dec;61(12):1701-7.
  • Massberg S, Grahl L. von Bruehl M-L, Manukyan D, Pfeiler S, Goosmann C. Brinkmann V, Lorenz M, Bidzhekov K, Khandagale AB, Konrad I, Kennerknecht E, Reges K, Holdenrieder S, Braun S, Reinhardt C, Spannagl M, Preissner KT and Engelmann B. Reciprocal coupling of coagulation and innate immunity via neutrophil serine proteases. Nat Med. 2010 Aug;16(8):887-96.
  • Reinhardt C, von Brühl ML, Manukyan D, Grahl L, Lorenz M, Altmann B, Dlugai S, Hess S, Konrad I, Orschiedt L, Mackman N, Ruddock L, Massberg S, Engelmann B. Protein disulfide isomerase acts as an injury response signal that enhances fibrin generation via tissue factor activation. J Clin Invest. 2008 Mar;118(3):1110-22.


  • Kiouptsi K, Pontarollo G, Reinhardt C. Gut Microbiota and the Microvasculature. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2023 Aug 1;13(8):a041179
  • Paeslack N, Mimmler M, Becker S, Gao Z, Khuu MP, Mann A, Malinarich F, Regen T, Reinhardt C. Microbiota-derived tryptophan metabolites in vascular inflammation and cardiovascular disease. Amino Acids. 2022 Apr 22
  • Bayer F, Dremova O, Khuu MP, Mammadova K, Pontarollo G, Kiouptsi K, Soshnikova N, May-Simera HL, Endres K, Reinhardt C. The Interplay between Nutrition, Innate Immunity, and the Commensal Microbiota in Adaptive Intestinal Morphogenesis. Nutrients. 2021; 26;13(7):2198.
  • Pontarollo G, Kiouptsi K, Reinhardt C. A holobiont view on thrombosis: unravelling the microbiota's influence on arterial thrombus growth. Microb Cell 2020;7(1):28-31.
  • Lässiger-Herfurth A, Pontarollo G, Grill A, Reinhardt C. The Gut Microbiota in Cardiovascular Disease and Arterial Thrombosis. Microorganisms. 2019 Dec 13;7(12):691.
  • Pontarollo G, Mann A, Brandão I, Malinarich F, Schöpf M, Reinhardt C. Protease-activated receptor signaling in intestinal permeability regulation. FEBS J. 2020;287(4):645-658.
  • Bayer F, Ascher S, Pontarollo G, Reinhardt C. Antibiotic treatment protocols and germ-free mouse models in vascular research. Front Immunol. 2019; 10:2174.
  • Reinhardt C. The Gut Microbiota as an Influencing Factor of Arterial Thrombosis. Hamostaseologie. 2019 Jun;39(2):173-179.
  • Formes H, Reinhardt C. The gut microbiota - a modulator of endothelial cell function and a contributing environmental factor to arterial thrombosis. Expert Rev Hematol. 2019 Jul;12(7):541-549
  • Reinhardt C. The Involvement of Toll-like Receptor-2 in Arterial Thrombus Formation. Hamostaseologie2018;38(4):223-228.
  • Subramaniam S, Kanse SM, Kothari H, Reinhardt C, Fletcher C. Post-transcriptional, post-translational and pharmacological regulation of tissue factor pathway inhibitor. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2018;29(8):668-682.
  • Kiouptsi K, Reinhardt C. Contribution of the commensal microbiota to atherosclerosis and arterial thrombosis. Br J Pharmacol. 2018;175(24):4439-4449.
  • Westmeier D, Hahlbrock A, Reinhardt C, Frohlich-Nowoisky J, Wessler S, Vallet C, Pöschl U, Knauer SK, Stauber RH. Nanomaterial-microbe cross-talk: physicochemical principles and (patho)biological consequences. Chem Soc Rev 2018;47(14):5312-5337.
  • Khandagale A, Reinhardt C.  Gut microbiota - architects of small intestinal capillaries. Front Biosci (Landmark Ed). 2018 Jan 1;23:752-766.
  • Ascher S, Reinhardt C. The gut microbiota - an emerging risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. Eur J Immunol. 2018;48(4):564-575.
  • Kiouptsi K, Reinhardt C. Protein disulfide-isomerase - a trigger of tissue factor-dependent thrombosis. Clin Hemorheol Microcirc. 2016;64(3):279-286
  • Garn H, Bahn S, Baune BT, Binder EB, Bisgaard H, Chatila TA, Chavakis T, Culmsee C, Dannlowski U, Gay S, Gern J, Haahtela T, Kircher T, Müller-Ladner U, Neurath MF, Preissner KT, Reinhardt C, Rook G, Russell S, Schmeck B et al. Current concepts in chronic inflammatory diseases: Interactions between microbes, cellular metabolism, and inflammation. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016 Jul;138(1):47-56.
  • Reinhardt C, Reigstad CS, Bäckhed F. Intestinal microbiota during infancy and its implications for obesity. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2009 Mar;48(3):249-56.
  • Reinhardt C. New locations of intravascular tissue factor: indications. Hamostaseologie. 2007 Feb;27(1):55-8.


  • Pontarollo G, Reinhardt C. The hemorrhage risk of dasatinib therapy. Blood. 2023 Jun 15;141(24):2917-2918.
  • Haghikia A, van Mens TE, Pontarollo G, Reinhardt C. Editorial: Impact of the gut microbiota on cardiovascular medicine. Front Med (Lausanne). 2022 Jul 13;9:939890.
  • Reinhardt C. The Microbiota: A Microbial Ecosystem Built on Mutualism Prevails. J Innate Immun 2019:1-2.
  • Kiouptsi K, Ruf W, Reinhardt C. Microbiota-Derived Trimethylamine. Circ Res 2018;123(10):1112-1114.
  • Reinhardt C (2017) GAS6: Pouring GASoline Into the Inflammatory Inferno of Venous Thrombosis. Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology 37: 1263-1265


Becker C, Reinhardt C. Unexpected role of natural killer cell-derived interferon-γ as a driver of NETosis and DVT. J Thromb Haemost. 2019;17(2):400-402. 

Book Chapters

  • Pontarollo G, Kiouptsi K, Bayer F, Reinhardt C, 2022. Gut Microbiota: A New Marker of Cardiovascular Disease. In: Glibetic, M. (Ed.), Comprehensive Gut Microbiota, vol. 2. Elsevier, pp. 319–338.
  • Kiouptsi K, Reinhardt C. Physiological roles of the von Willebrand factor-factor VIII interaction. Subcell Biochem. 2020;94:437-464
  • Grill A, Reinhardt C. Germ-free mouse technology in cardiovascular research. In: Microbiome and Metabolome in Diagnosis, Therapy, and other Strategic Applications. 2019. Edited by Joel Faintuch and Salomao Faintuch. Elsevier Academic Press. pp. 13-25.
  • Reinhardt C, Manukyan D, Ruf W. Coagulation factor signalling in vascular development. Endothelial Signaling in Development and Disease (Springer Book, Editor: Mirko Schmidt und Stefan Liebner).

September 2023

Olga Dremova has been awarded a 'Best Presentation Award' for the excellent presentation of her research at the 10th anniversary of the Mainz Graduate School TransMed.

July 2023

The gut microbiome suppresses the hedgehog pathway in the small intestine. Our work on gnotobiotic mouse models identified neuropilin-1 as a microbiome-dependent regulator of hedgehog activity and gut epithelial barrier function. Published by Pontarollo et al. in Nature Metabolism

Congratulations! Congrats to Stefanie Ascher for graduating as Dr. rer. nat.!

Februar 2022

Congratulations! Congrats to Henning Formes for graduating as Dr. rer. nat.!

December 2021

Christoph Reinhardt talks in 'Habitat Mensch' Health TV about the microbiome and its role in cardiovascular disease.

September 2021

Transcripomics study on gnotobiotic mouse models demonstrates the impact of the gut microbiome on the sphinlolipid synthesis pathway in hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells. Formes et al 2021.

November 2020

Co-option of netrophil fates by tissue environments - collaboration with the group of Andres Hidalgo at the Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares Carlos III Madrid published in cell. 

July 2020

For his research on microbiota-host interactions in arterial thrombosis Christoph Reinhardt was awarded a prestigeous Gutenberg Research Fellowship from the Gutenberg Research College

June 2020

How the gut microbiota impacts late atherosclerotic lesions. Our collaborative study with a germ-free mouse atherosclerosis model was published in Gut Microbes: Germ-free housing conditions do not affect aortic root and aortic arch lesion size of late atherosclerotic low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice

March 2020

High-fat diet shapes small intestinal morphology (Todorov H, Kollar B, et al., Nutrients, 2020)