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Professorship "Vascular Inflammation"

Prof. Philip Wenzel, MD

Vascular inflammation is an important principle in the continuum of cardiovascular diseases. It is important in the pathophysiology of arterial hypertension and hypercholesterolemia and leads to endothelial dysfunction. In myocardial infarction, venous thromboembolism and ischemia-reperfusion injury, but also in chronic inflammatory diseases such as psoriasis and exogenous environmental factors such as stress and noise exposure, it is of great importance with potentially modifiable therapeutic target structures. In this context, our work group focuses on the importance of CD11b + myeloid cells, especially monocytes / macrophages.

An independent aspect of our group is dedicated to the influence of coagulation factors in the contact phase system, thrombin amplification and the tissue factor system in vascular inflammation.

Research interests

  • The role of inflammatory myelomonocytic cells in activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system

  • The interaction of coagulation factors, leukocytes and platelets in vascular dysfunction, ischemic and nonischemic heart failure and atherothrombosis

  • Systemic role of vascular inflammation in age-related decline of organ function

Partners of Collaboration

  • Christian Becker (Dermatology, University Medical Center Mainz)
  • Ari Waisman (Institute of Molecular Medicine, University Medical Center Mainz)
  • Christoph Reinhardt (CTH, University Medical Center Mainz)
  • Wolfram Ruf (Alexander von Humboldt-Professorship, University Medical Center Mainz)
  • Thomas Renné (Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm)
  • Zaverio Ruggeri (Scripps Research, La Jolla, USA)
  • Miguel Andrade (Institute for Molecular Biology)
  • Jens Titze (Duke Singapore, Singapore)
  • Philip Tsao (Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, USA)
  • Stefan Tenzer (Paul Klein Center for Immune Intervention, University Medical Center Mainz)

Research Funding

Team - Professorship 'Vascular Inflammation'

Prof. Dr. Med Philip Wenzel, MD
Prof. Dr. Med Philip Wenzel, MD

Deputy director Cardiology I, DZHK Principal Investigator

06131 17-7695

PD Dr. med. Susanne Karbach, MD
PD Dr. med. Susanne Karbach, MD

Physician Cardiology I, Scientist, Group Leader

> Homepage Junior Group Karbach

 Melania Aluia
Melania Aluia

PhD Student

06131 17-8036

 Jan Moritz Brandt, MD
Jan Moritz Brandt, MD

Physician Cardiology I, Clinician Scientist, CHANCE Fellow

Weitere Informationen

PhD Stefanie Finger
PhD Stefanie Finger

Senior PostDoc

 Sana'a Khraisat
Sana'a Khraisat

PhD Student

06131 17-8036

 Qi Luo
Qi Luo

PhD student

06131 17-8036

MD Michael Molitor
MD Michael Molitor

Physician Cardiology I, Clinician Scientist, CHANCE Fellow

06131 17-8036

 Katharina Perius
Katharina Perius


06131 17-8058

06131 17-8047


  • Hendrik Dörschmann
  • Anne-Kristin Conze
  • Anja Conrad
  • Dr. med. Maria Isabel Schmidgen
  • Dr. med. Jan Stratmann
  • Dr. med. Daniel Minwegen
  • Dr. med. vet. Tanja Schönfelder
  • Dr. med. Eleni Giokoglu
  • Panagiotis Efentakis, PhD
  • Jeremy Lagrange, PhD
  • Dr. med. Wolf-Stephan Rudi
  • Dr. rer. nat. Sabine Kossmann
  • Venkat Garlapati, Phd

Selected Original Articles

  • Garlapati V, Molitor M, Michna T, Harms GS, Finger S, Jung R, Lagrange J, Efentakis P, Wild J, Knorr M, Karbach S, Wild S, Vujacic-Mirski K, Münzel T, Daiber A, Brandt M, Gori T, Milting H, Tenzer S, Ruf W, Wenzel P. Targeting myeloid cell coagulation signaling blocks MAP kinase/TGF-β1-driven fibrotic remodeling in ischemic heart failure. J Clin Invest. 2023 Feb 15;133(4):e156436
  • Brandt M, Dörschmann H, Khraisat S, Knopp T, Ringen J, Kalinovic S, Garlapati V, Siemer S, Molitor M, Göbel S, Stauber R, Karbach SH, Münzel T, Daiber A, Wenzel P. Telomere Shortening in Hypertensive Heart Disease Depends on Oxidative DNA Damage and Predicts Impaired Recovery of Cardiac Function in Heart Failure. Hypertension. 2022 Oct;79(10):2173-2184
  • Luo Q, Wenzel P. Properdin (factor P) as a new target cleaved by factor XIa: Intrinsic coagulation at the crossroads with inflammation. Res Pract Thromb Haemost. 2022 Nov 4;6(7):e12835
  • Efentakis P, Molitor M, Kossmann S, Bochenek ML, Wild J, Lagrange J, Finger S, Jung R, Karbach S, Schäfer K, Schulz A, Wild P, Münzel T, Wenzel P. Tubulin-folding cofactor E deficiency promotes vascular dysfunction by increased endoplasmic reticulum stress. Eur Heart J. 2022 Feb 10;43(6):488-500
  • Molitor M, Rudi WS, Garlapati V, Finger S, Schuler R, Kossmann S, Lagrange J, Nguyen TS, Wild J, Knopp T, Karbach SH, Knorr M, Ruf W, Munzel T, Wenzel P. Nox2+ myeloid cells drive vascular inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in heart failure after myocardial infarction via angiotensin II receptor type 1. Cardiovasc Res. 2021;117:162-177
  • Keller K, Hobohm L, Ostad MA, Göbel S, Lankeit M, Konstantinides S, Münzel T, Wenzel P. Temporal trends and predictors of inhospital death in patients hospitalised for heart failure in Germany. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2021 Aug 9;28(9):990-997
  • Rudi WS, Molitor M, Garlapati V, Finger S, Wild J, Münzel T, Karbach SH, Wenzel P. ACE Inhibition Modulates Myeloid Hematopoiesis after Acute Myocardial Infarction and Reduces Cardiac and Vascular Inflammation in Ischemic Heart Failure. Antioxidants (Basel). 2021 Mar 5;10(3):396
  • Lagrange J, Finger S, Kossmann S, Garlapati V, Ruf W, Wenzel P. Angiotensin II Infusion Leads to Aortic Dissection in LRP8 Deficient Mice. Int J Mol Sci. 2020;21
  • Wenzel P, Kopp S, Göbel S, Jansen T, Geyer M, Hahn F, Kreitner KF, Escher F, Schultheiss HP, Münzel T. Evidence of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA in endomyocardial biopsies of patients with clinically suspected myocarditis tested negative for COVID-19 in nasopharyngeal swab. Cardiovasc Res. 2020 Aug 1;116(10):1661-1663
  • Karbach S, Hobohm L, Wild J, Munzel T, Gori T, Wegner J, Steinbrink K, Wenzel P, Keller K. Impact of Psoriasis on Mortality Rate and Outcome in Myocardial Infarction. J Am Heart Assoc. 2020;9:e016956
  • Finger S, Knorr M, Molitor M, Schuler R, Garlapati V, Waisman A, Brandt M, Munzel T, Bopp T, Kossmann S, Karbach S, Wenzel P. A sequential interferon gamma directed chemotactic cellular immune response determines survival and cardiac function post-myocardial infarction. Cardiovasc Res. 2019;115:1907-1917
  • Jansen T, Kroller-Schon S, Schonfelder T, Foretz M, Viollet B, Daiber A, Oelze M, Brandt M, Steven S, Kvandova M, Kalinovic S, Lagrange J, Keaney JF, Jr., Munzel T, Wenzel P, Schulz E. alpha1AMPK deletion in myelomonocytic cells induces a pro-inflammatory phenotype and enhances angiotensin II-induced vascular dysfunction. Cardiovasc Res. 2018;114:1883-1893
  • Subramaniam S, Jurk K, Hobohm L, Jackel S, Saffarzadeh M, Schwierczek K, Wenzel P, Langer F, Reinhardt C, Ruf W. Distinct contributions of complement factors to platelet activation and fibrin formation in venous thrombus development. Blood. 2017;129:2291-2302
  • Sag CM, Schnelle M, Zhang J, Murdoch CE, Kossmann S, Protti A, Santos CXC, Sawyer G, Zhang X, Mongue-Din H, Richards DA, Brewer AC, Prysyazhna O, Maier LS, Wenzel P, Eaton PJ, Shah AM. Distinct Regulatory Effects of Myeloid Cell and Endothelial Cell NAPDH Oxidase 2 on Blood Pressure. Circulation. 2017;135:2163-2177
  • Kossmann S, Lagrange J, Jackel S, Jurk K, Ehlken M, Schonfelder T, Weihert Y, Knorr M, Brandt M, Xia N, Li H, Daiber A, Oelze M, Reinhardt C, Lackner K, Gruber A, Monia B, Karbach SH, Walter U, Ruggeri ZM, Renne T, Ruf W, Munzel T, Wenzel P. Platelet-localized FXI promotes a vascular coagulation-inflammatory circuit in arterial hypertension. Sci Transl Med. 2017;9
  • Karbach SH, Schonfelder T, Brandao I, Wilms E, Hormann N, Jackel S, Schuler R, Finger S, Knorr M, Lagrange J, Brandt M, Waisman A, Kossmann S, Schafer K, Munzel T, Reinhardt C, Wenzel P. Gut Microbiota Promote Angiotensin II-Induced Arterial Hypertension and Vascular Dysfunction. J Am Heart Assoc. 2016;5
  • Wenzel P, Rossmann H, Muller C, Kossmann S, Oelze M, Schulz A, Arnold N, Simsek C, Lagrange J, Klemz R, Schonfelder T, Brandt M, Karbach SH, Knorr M, Finger S, Neukirch C, Hauser F, Beutel ME, Kroller-Schon S, Schulz E, Schnabel RB, Lackner K, Wild PS, Zeller T, Daiber A, Blankenberg S, Munzel T. Heme oxygenase-1 suppresses a pro-inflammatory phenotype in monocytes and determines endothelial function and arterial hypertension in mice and humans. European heart journal. 2015;36:3437-3446
  • Hinkel R, Lange P, Petersen B, Gottlieb E, Ng JK, Finger S, Horstkotte J, Lee S, Thormann M, Knorr M, El-Aouni C, Boekstegers P, Reichart B, Wenzel P, Niemann H, Kupatt C. Heme Oxygenase-1 Gene Therapy Provides Cardioprotection Via Control of Post-Ischemic Inflammation: An Experimental Study in a Pre-Clinical Pig Model. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2015;66:154-165
  • Kossmann S, Hu H, Steven S, Schonfelder T, Fraccarollo D, Mikhed Y, Brahler M, Knorr M, Brandt M, Karbach SH, Becker C, Oelze M, Bauersachs J, Widder J, Munzel T, Daiber A, Wenzel P. Inflammatory Monocytes Determine Endothelial Nitric-oxide Synthase Uncoupling and Nitro-oxidative Stress Induced by Angiotensin II. The Journal of biological chemistry. 2014;289:27540-27550
  • Kossmann S, Schwenk M, Hausding M, Karbach SH, Schmidgen MI, Brandt M, Knorr M, Hu H, Kroller-Schon S, Schonfelder T, Grabbe S, Oelze M, Daiber A, Munzel T, Becker C, Wenzel P. Angiotensin II-Induced Vascular Dysfunction Depends on Interferon-gamma-Driven Immune Cell Recruitment and Mutual Activation of Monocytes and NK-Cells. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2013;33:1313-1319
  • Wenzel P, Knorr M, Kossmann S, Stratmann J, Hausding M, Schuhmacher S, Karbach SH, Schwenk M, Yogev N, Schulz E, Oelze M, Grabbe S, Jonuleit H, Becker C, Daiber A, Waisman A, Munzel T. Lysozyme M-Positive Monocytes Mediate Angiotensin II-Induced Arterial Hypertension and Vascular Dysfunction. Circulation. 2011;124:1370-1381
  •  Wenzel P, Schuhmacher S, Kienhofer J, Muller J, Hortmann M, Oelze M, Schulz E, Treiber N, Kawamoto T, Scharffetter-Kochanek K, Munzel T, Burkle A, Bachschmid MM, Daiber A. Manganese superoxide dismutase and aldehyde dehydrogenase deficiency increase mitochondrial oxidative stress and aggravate age-dependent vascular dysfunction. Cardiovasc Res. 2008;80:280-289.
  • Wenzel P, Hink U, Oelze M, Schuppan S, Schaeuble K, Schildknecht S, Ho KK, Weiner H, Bachschmid M, Munzel T, Daiber A. Role of reduced lipoic acid in the redox regulation of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH-2) activity. Implications for mitochondrial oxidative stress and nitrate tolerance. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:792-799

Selected Reviews

  • Wild J, Wenzel P. Myeloid cells, tissue homeostasis, and anatomical barriers as innate immune effectors in arterial hypertension. J Mol Med (Berl). 2021 Mar;99(3):315-326
  • Jung R, Wild J, Ringen J, Karbach S, Wenzel P. Innate Immune Mechanisms of Arterial Hypertension and Autoimmune Disease. Am J Hypertens. 2021 Mar 11;34(2):143-153
  • Wenzel P. Monocytes as immune targets in arterial hypertension. Br J Pharmacol. 2019;176:1966-1977
  • Lagrange J, Wenzel P. The regulatory role of coagulation factors in vascular function. Frontiers in bioscience. 2019;24:494-513
  • Karbach S, Lagrange J, Wenzel P. Thromboinflammation and Vascular Dysfunction. Hamostaseologie. 2019;39:180-187
  • Wenzel P. Monocytes as immune targets in arterial hypertension. Br J Pharmacol. 2019 Jun;176(12):1966-1977
  • Wenzel P, Kossmann S, Munzel T, Daiber A. Redox regulation of cardiovascular inflammation - Immunomodulatory function of mitochondrial and Nox-derived reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Free Radic Biol Med. 2017;109:48-60

Editorials, Comments and other articles

  • Wenzel P. Thromboinflammation in cardiovascular disease: lessons learned for the management of hypertension, heart failure, and aortic valve stenosis. Eur Heart J. 2022 Nov 21;43(44):4611-4613
  • Schäfer K, Wenzel P. When big eaters stop feasting: loss of metabolic control in macrophages exacerbates hypertension in obesity. Cardiovasc Res. 2021 Jan 21;117(2):351-353
  • Knopp T, Karbach S, Wenzel P. Myeloid Cells to the Rescue: Improving Thrombus Resolution. Thromb Haemost. 2020 Feb;120(2):197-198
  • Carnevale D, Wenzel P. Mechanical stretch on endothelial cells interconnects innate and adaptive immune response in hypertension. Cardiovasc Res. 2018 Sep 1;114(11):1432-1434
  • Brandt M, Wenzel P. Alcohol puts the heart under pressure: Acetaldehyde activates a localized renin angiotensin aldosterone system within the myocardium in alcoholic cardiomyopathy. Int J Cardiol. 2018 Apr 15;257:220-221
  • Kossmann S, Wenzel P. Under Pressure: A New Role for CD11c+ Myeloid Cells in Hypertension. Hypertension. 2018 Apr;71(4):557-558
  • Wenzel P. Organic Nitrates in Heart Failure Revisited: Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate Induces Heme Oxygenase 1 to Protect the Myocardium. Hypertension. 2015 Nov;66(5):933-4

Editorial Commentary

Under Pressure: A New Role for CD11c+ Myeloid Cells in Hypertension.
Kossmann S, Wenzel P.

Hypertension. 2018 Jan 29. pii: HYPERTENSIONAHA.117.10216. [Epub ahead of print]